_Semiconductor_Wafer preparation Phase
Wafer preparation Phase
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- Crystal Growing
- This is a process to grow crystal silicon by making seed crystal contact highly purified molten silicon. It has over 99.9999% of purity and makes molten silicon particles attach to not-molten silicon by making not-molten silicon lump to the surface of molten silicon at about 1200℃. Meanwhile, the silicon lump rises up rotating at a certain speed and it seems that something grows up. Therefore, it is described as growth. At this time, it is possible to make a silicon ingot with desired thickness by controlling the rotation speed, rising up speed, and various other conditions. It is made to 4, 5, 6, 8, and recently 12 inch according to its size. Due to this reason in its manufacturing process, the silicon wafer is made to be round.
- Shaping of Sillicon Ingot
- This is a process to section this grown silicon ingot into thin wafers with even thickness Because silicone wafer made of silicon has a relatively wide energy band gap as broad as about 1.2e, there is an advantage able to operate at relative high temperature. This silicone wafers are classified into N-type and P-type according to its Dopant type and into <100> and <111> by the crystal growth direction.
- Polishing of Water Surface
- This is a process to make one side of wafer as like mirror surface by polishing it. Polishing is defined as ‘making a surface smooth and glossy by friction' and means making a crystal surface where light refraction from a light source is scattered a reflective surface as like a mirror. The wafer surface processed by chemical etching in the previous process is processed to a smooth mirror surface without damage during mirror surface polishing process. The mirror surface polishing of silicon wafer is accomplished by controlling load and relative speed constantly between the wafer and polishing pad made of artificial leather. The mirror polishing process of silicon wafer is progressed by forming soft silica hydration membrane on the wafer by an alkali solution and removing it by abrasive particles. The mirror surface polishing of silicon wafer includes various methods such as lapping to make both surfaces mirror surfaces simultaneously, single sheet method to polish a wafer surface through vacuum absorption, and wax less method to polish packing pad and template without wax. The main method among them is wax mounting method to polish one side by attaching wax, which is also applied to glass and ceranrsc polishing as well as glass and ceranrsc. Currently, the wax mount batch type single sided processing method is mainly being used.